Germany | München
MOZART'S STAY IN MUENCHEN
Around 14.1. - mid of February 1762 ● 12. - 22.6.1763 ● 8. - around 27.11.1766 ● 7.12.1774 - 6.3.1775 ● 24.9 - 11.10.1777 ● 25.12.1778 - around 13.1.1779 ● 6.11.1780 - 12.3.1781 ● 29.10. - around 6.11.1790
Already during his first trip at the age of six years Wolfgang played together with his sister Nannerl for Elector Maximilian Joseph III. The second visit followed a year later, in June, 1763.
From Munich the Mozart family started to their three year European journey to Paris and London. On the way back from this triumphal journey they stopped in Munich again and Mozart gave concerts at the Emperors court.
Main focus of the next trip to Munich (1774 – in 1775) was the premiere of the opera "La finta giardiniera" at the Salvatortheater. In 1777 when Wolfgang and his mother were on the way to Paris Munich was destination again and they stayed 14 days in the Isar city. Unfortunately, at that time Wolfgang aspired in vain to an permanent employment.
Idomeneo, an opera which Mozart had composed by order of Elector Karl Theodor, was performed in Munich for the first time at the glamorous rococo theatre in the Munich palace, the Cuvilliés Theater. With pleasure he would have remained in Munich, however, there was, unfortunately, none „vacatur “ for him again.
In 1790 Mozart came for the last time to Munich on his trip to the coronation of Leopold II in Frankfurt. He played in a concert before the enthusiastic King of Naples.
The works and the respect for Mozart were held in Munich always in honour since that time. Based on order of the Eperor the opera "Don Giovanni" had been performed in 1791. In 1793 the "Zauberflöte" première took place in Munich. In January followed the opera "Figaros Hochzeit ".
Munich was Mozart's city and became to a "Mozart city" increasingly at the end of the 19th century when under Hermann Levi and Felix Mottl the Mozart Renaissance started and Richard Strauss and Ernst von Possart integrated his works firmly in the program of the opera and in the Munich opera festival. Till today his compositions are performed at the "Bayrische Staatsoper", the "Gärtnerplatztheater and the "Cuvilliés Theater as well as by well-known Munich orchestras.
In 2008 the extensive renovated Cuvilliés theatre will be reopened with a festive performance of „Idomeneo “ in the frame of the 850th jubilee of Munich.
Foundation of the city
In 1158 Munich was mentioned for the first time as "Villa Munichen" in a document, after the duke of Bavaria and Saxony, Heinrich the Lion, near an already existing monk's settlement allowed to establish a bridge over the Isar all around the Peter's church. Thus 1158 was fixed as the foundation year of Munich, as the year of the first documentary mention.
Munich in the Middle Ages
After Heinrich the Lion had been banned by the emperor in 1180 , Bavaria had been put under the regency of the Wittelsbacher.
In 1240 Munich received its town charter and became after the first land division a seat of the dukedom Munich Upper Bavaria. Since 1314 the Bavarian Duke Ludwig IV was German King and since 1328 Emperor too. During his reign Munich was extended and the second fortification was finished around the city. In this extension Munich maintained up to the end of the 18th century. As memory of the reign of Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian, Munich took over the imperial colours Black and Gold as her city colours. By the end of 14th century the Dukes moved their residence from the old court to the northern city border where in the course of the centuries the new residence grew up into a splendid palace.
Capital and residence city of Bavaria
When Bavaria was reunited in 1506 by Duke Albrecht IV Munich became capital of the whole of Bavaria. The construction of the old town hall and the "Frauenkirche" are wittnisses of the cultural and economic bloom of that time. Afterwards the influence of the citizenship diminished more and more and the Wittelsbacher determined the development of the city. Munich became a center of the German Counter Reformation. Duke Wilhelm V built the Hofbräuhaus for brewing brown beer in 1589.
During the Thirty Years' War Munich became electoral residence when Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria was invested with the electoral dignity because of his support of the Catholic League of the Emperor. When the Swedish army occupied Munich in 1632 King Gustav Adolph von Schweden was taken so deeply by the splendour of the palace that he would have brought it „best on wheels to Stockholm “. Elector Maximilian I initiated the baroque in Bavaria with his early-absolutistic ruling style. His successors built the Theatinerkirche, Nymphenburg Castle and Schleißheim Castle.
At the middle of 18th century the Bavarian Elector Karl Albrecht as Emperor Karl VII competed with Maria Theresia von Habsburg in regard to the power in the empire. For presentation reasons the residence was equipped in the rococo style magnificently and the Cuvilliés theatre was built.
After the death of Emperors Karl VII the political empire of Bavaria took an end.
On account of the grounded city wall, the foundation of new quarters and incorporations of suburbs the rise of Munich to a major city began at the end of 19th century. In 1700 Munich had just 24.000 inhabitants, but the inhabitant's number soon doubled all 30 years, so that in 1871 170.000 people lived in Munich and in 1933 these were already 840.000.
The cultural city under the Wittelsbachern:
Bavaria was raised by the support of Napoleon to kingdom in 1806. Under the government of King Ludwig I of Bavaria (1825–1848) Munich became an art city largely known. The classicism architectures Leo von Klenze and Friedrich von Gärtner designed the Ludwigstrasse, the "Königsplatz" with the Glyptothek and the extension of the residence. With the construction of the old and new Pinakothek Munich received two of the most significant art museums in the world. Ludwig's son Max II (1848–1864) promoted in particular the humanities, but acted as well as a constructor. Among others the buildings along the "Maximilianstrasse", today one of the most exclusive shopping streets of the continent, were constructed in the new "Maximilianstil" reminding to the English Gothic. Under his brother prince's regent Luitpold (1886–1912) experienced Munich an immense economic and cultural impetus. Among others the "Prinzregenten Strasse" and the "Prinzregenten Theater" were built. "Schwabing" experienced around the turn of the century a blossom as an artist's quarter in which numerous brilliant writers and painters of the time operated. In 1896 the Munich cultural magazine „Die "Jugend“was published for the first time which became name-giving for the "Art Noveaul". In 1911 the artist's union the blue rider was founded. In his story Gladius Dei Thomas Mann created the word „Munich shines “.
Dark Munich times
After the First World War, in 1919, the monarchy fell down. A worried time also affected by revolutions followed. For a short time Munich was a communist soviet republic. National Socialist's activities developed in the city. An attempted coup of Hitler failed in 1923. Munich still became from 1935 on „Hauptstadt der Bewegung “. The Munich circle „Weiße Rose “also belonged to the resistant movement against the Hitler's regime. During the Second World War experienced Munich extensive destructions by the bombardment of the allies.
Munich as a modern city
After the reconstruction, to a great extent oriented in the historical townscape, Munich developed after the Second World War to a high tech location, in addition, numerous enterprises of the service branch settled, thus, for example, media, assurances and banks. Also the tourism experienced an large impetus in a city rich of significant museums (the Alte Pinakothek, the Neue Pinakothek, and the Pinakothek der Moderne as well as the Deutsche Museum) and places of interest. In 1972 Munich hosted XXth Summer Olympics. For the games of "short ways" the public close traffic was developed massively, by underground and city railroads, extended partly far in the hinterland. The shopping mile in the city centre was converted into a pedestrian area and the cars were banished from the city centre. In 1992 the new airport of Munich, Franz Josef Strauss, had been inaugurated before the gates of Munich. On the former airport area the fair city of Riem originated as a new part of town. Here the federal garden show (BUGA 2005) was organized. With the football world championship in 2006 Munich became well-known as a sports city in the public view. An architectural highlight was created with the construction of the new stadium of the „Allianz arena “. At the end of 2006 the new synagogue „Ohel Jakob “ situated directly in the heart of the city opened its gates. In 2007 not only the Jewish museum, but also the BMW world were inaugurated – another fascinating construction in Munich. Starting in 2008 the Brandhorst collection nearby the Pinakothek will offer one of the most significant collections of modern art. In 2008 Munich will celebrate its 850 years jubilee in a gigantic birthday party. The world-famous "Oktoberfest" will have its 200 years jubilee in 2010. A prominent future plan of the city of Munich is the application for the Olympic Winter Games in 2018.
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